Polyamory in the News!
. . . by Alan M.

August 18, 2016

The Normalization of Poly, Part 1,259

So there I was reading an article in The Atlantic about how New England suburbs are losing their young people, and bango, I hit this:

...One such leaver is Matt Kozachek, 27, who grew up in Storrs, Connecticut, attended the University of Connecticut, and lived in Groton after college, working as a software engineer. Life as a Millennial in Connecticut was boring, he says. There were no cool bars or art galleries or fun events to attend, and it was hard to make friends. What’s more, Kozachek identifies as polyamorous, and said that was taboo in Connecticut. So a year ago, he picked up and moved to San Francisco. ...

No further explanation of what the word means or why it's a big enough deal for someone to move away from their home state — even though dating several people, if that's what you thought it means, is as common as rocks and as white-bread as a Connecticut suburb. Readers are just assumed to know better.

The article: An Unsteady Future for New England's Suburbs (August 18, 2016).

(That number in the title, BTW, is the number of posts on this site.)


August 17, 2016

"Why People Are Fighting to Get Polyamory Recognized as a Sexual Orientation"

The latest in Vice's long run of poly articles, out today, looks at the community's debate over whether poly is an innate orientation or a deliberately chosen way of relationships. The article is a surprisingly good overview to get you up to speed on the discussion. Excerpts:

Why People Are Fighting to Get Polyamory Recognized as a Sexual Orientation

A hand-tinted postcard from c.1910.

By Neil McArthur

Melissa Marie Legge always knew she was different — she just felt it, even before she knew how to talk about that feeling. "Wherever this part of me came from, it has certainly always been there, even before I had words to describe or explain it," she told VICE. "Consensual non-monogamy gives me the freedom to involve people in my life on my own terms, and to negotiate relationships individually and contextually without having to follow a social script. It's something that I value highly, and that I would say is a big part of my sexual identity overall."

That's how Marie Legge describes being polyamorous, and somewhat controversially, identity is the precise word she uses. ...

"Consensually non-monogamous clients more often than not tell me this is how they've felt their whole life," Professor Markie Twist, program coordinator for the University of Wisconsin-Stout's sex therapy program and licensed family therapist, told VICE. "When they were children, they totally felt that way. It was only when they got older that they were told you're not allowed to like more than one person at the same time."

Not everyone is on board with the drive to recognize polyamory as an orientation. In 2012, popular sex columnist Dan Savage declared that polyamory is "not a sexual orientation. It's not something you are, it's something you do." His comment touched off, in his own words, a "shitstorm." ... On her Practical Polyamory blog, poly advocate Anita Wagner wrote in response to the Savage brouhaha that by recognizing polyamory as such, non-monogamous persons can acquire a sense of identity that "becomes the bedrock upon which we can build a life that will withstand the external cultural challenges we sometimes encounter." ...

Ann Tweedy, a lawyer who has researched polyamory and the law, argued in a 2010 paper for the University of Cincinnati Law Review that if society accepted non-monogamy as an orientation, the possible legal implications could be significant. ...

Not all non-monogamists agree that reclassifying the practice as an orientation would help the community. "People have divided minds about it within polyamory communities," Christian Klesse, a senior lecturer in sociology at the UK's Manchester Metropolitan University who has researched polyamory, told VICE. "Many are attracted to the whole idea of polyamory because it does not provide fixed modes for living," or a "rigid script" for conceiving of sexual identity, he said. He thinks that "the language of sexual orientation closes down the potential of polyamory to trouble our ideas about gender, sexual attraction, and love."...

The movement for recognition also co-opts the language of LGBTQ liberation, and not everyone within that community is comfortable with this. ... Even within the LBGTQ community, consensus around the idea that sexual orientation is innate and immutable has never existed. ... Professor Lisa Diamond, a professor of psychology at the University of Utah, has done extensive research documenting the extent to which sexual orientation is fluid; though polyamory has been less studied, it stands to reason that relationship orientation may be at least as malleable.

Relationship orientation very likely has one important parallel with sexual orientation: It forms a continuum, with some of us on either extreme, but most somewhere along a spectrum. As LGBTQ people begin to feel secure in their legal and social status, they may find that rigid ideas about innate orientation — be they about one's sexuality, gender, or, yes, their relationship orientation — are less important in their struggle for equal rights. ...

Neil McArthur is the director of the Centre for Professional and Applied Ethics at University of Manitoba, where his work focuses on sexual ethics and the philosophy of sexuality. Follow him on Twitter.

Read the whole article (August 17, 2016).

● Here's Klesse's paper on the subject referred to above: Polyamory: Intimate practice, identity or sexual orientation? by Christian Klesse (Manchester Metropolitan University, UK), in the journal Sexualities (January 2014; vol. 17 no. 1-2; doi:10.1177/1363460713511096). The full paper is behind a paywall — get it through a library with academic access — but here's the abstract:

Polyamory means different things to different people. While some consider polyamory to be nothing more than a convenient label for their current relationship constellations or a handy tool for communicating their willingness to enter more than one relationship at a time, others claim it as one of their core identities. Essentialist identity narratives have sustained recent arguments that polyamory is best understood as a sexual orientation and is as such comparable with homosexuality, heterosexuality or bisexuality. Such a move would render polyamory intelligible within dominant political and legal frameworks of sexual diversity. The article surveys academic and activist discussions on sexual orientation and traces contradictory voices in current debates on polyamory. The author draws on poststructuralist ideas to show the shortcomings of sexual orientation discourses and highlights the losses which are likely to follow from pragmatic definitions of polyamory as sexual orientation.

● Some past articles and roundups of mine about poly-as-orientation news and debate.



August 15, 2016

Poly Friendly Professionals list relaunches, and an interview with a therapist trainer

It used to be really hard to find a poly-friendly therapist. Or lawyer, or doctor, or whatever. Or even one who knew what you were talking about. Lists of poly-friendly professionals began in the 1990s, but they were sparse and often went unmaintained.

Well surprise! Geri Weitzman and friends have completely overhauled and updated Joe Decker's Poly Friendly Professionals Directory, and it boasts far more listings than I've ever seen. And for more categories of professionals than ever. Geri writes,

The Poly Friendly Professionals Directory is once again live, thanks to the efforts of hardworking volunteers. Please spread the word — first to let folks know of the directory being available again at its new URL, polyfriendly.org — and second to tell any poly-friendly professionals you might know, to ask them to submit new listings or update their old ones (instructions are at polyfriendly.org/joining.php. The listings are free). If you have questions, please contact us at polyfriendlyprofessionals (AT) gmail.com . Thanks!

Geri is the original author of the booklet What Psychology Professionals Should Know About Polyamory, which you can email to your shrink so they can educate themself on their own time rather than yours. Printed copies are also available singly or in bulk from the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom (NCSF).

All this is introduction to an interview out last week in the alternative Tuscon Weekly — with Kate Kincaid, "a therapist specializing in counseling gender and sexual minorities, people in alternative relationship models, and issues such as infidelity, mistrust, and ineffective communication. Additionally, she provides poly/kink-awareness trainings and workshops for other counselors."

Polyamory 101: An Interview With Kate Kincaid

By Ally Booker

...Kate: I think the simplest definition is loving more than one person, but it's so much more than that! We all love more than one person, but that doesn't necessarily mean we are all polyamorous. The more nuanced definition is that it's an identity and/or lifestyle choice to ethically practice being in close, intimate, romantic or sexual relationships with more than one consenting person.

...Many seem to think poly people are a bunch of oversexed heathens, which isn't necessarily untrue, but there's a lot more to it. In fact, ethically non-monogamous people tend to be very communicative and practice safer sex practices than the general population. Another misconception is that anything goes, when in fact there are a lot of agreements and sophisticated rules of etiquette for dating within the poly community.

...Ally: What's your polyamory origin story?

Kate: I've basically been poly since 8th grade when I started dating. I was crushing hard on my boyfriend, but I also loved my neighborhood best friend too. ... It involved a lot of lying and didn't feel very good for anyone involved....

Ever since I've worked in a sex research lab, I learned that a lot of other people struggle with monogamy, so it normalized [this] for me. I used to believe everyone was non-monogamous "by nature" and I was kind of militant about it. My views on it have evolved and I now believe that some people tend towards non-monogamy and some don't, it works for some people and doesn't for others, sometimes your life is set up to be conducive to it and sometimes it isn't. It's all very fluid. ...

It feels so good to be totally honest. It challenges me to be really brave and say exactly what I want. I don't judge people doing "unethical non-monogamy" as bad people at all. I empathize with not being able to express how you feel for fear of losing or hurting your partner. But I've personally found facing this fear to be extremely rewarding. But that is not necessarily true for everyone.

Ally: I'm glad to hear you're no longer "militant" about it! One of my dear friends was in an abusive relationship that was normalized by the kink-friendly couples therapist that they visited. The therapist was so invested in being a "kink" therapist that it acted like a blinder against certain red flags.

Kate: Gah! I cringe when I hear about experiences with therapists like that. That's why I want to get more into training my colleagues! Equally enraging is seeing people hiding abuse under the guise of polyamory. ... It's so important to have help from people who can understand the difference — whether that be a good therapist or open-minded, understanding friends.

Ally: What's one thing you'd tell a polyamory "pro"?

Kate: You're never a pro. Every relationship is different and will challenge you in different ways. ...

Read the whole article (August 11, 2016).

● Lots of previous posts here tagged Therapists (including this one; scroll down).

● Also, Ryan Witherspoon last year posted a bibliography of some academic papers regarding poly and therapy:

Here are the citations I have (aside from Dr. Weitzman's work) that directly relate to therapeutic work with poly clients.

Berry, M. M. D. M., & Barker, M. (2014). Extraordinary interventions for extraordinary clients: existential sex therapy and open non-monogamy. *Sexual and Relationship Therapy*, *29*(1), 21–30. doi:1O.1080114681994.2013.866642

Davidson, J. (2002). Working with polyamorous clients in the clinical setting. *Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality*, *5*, 1–7.

Finn, M. D. (2014). Questioning the Rule-Making Imperative in Therapeutic Stabilizations of Non-Monogamous ( Open ) Relationships. *Forum: Qualitative Social Research*, *15*(3), 1–19.

Finn, M. D., Tunariu, A. D., & Lee, K. C. (2012). A critical analysis of affirmative therapeutic engagements with consensual non-monogamy. *Sexual and Relationship Therapy*, *27*(3), 205–216. doi:10.1080/14681994.2012.702893

Girard, A., & Brownlee, A. (2015). Assessment guidelines and clinical implications for therapists working with couples in sexually open
marriages. *Sexual and Relationship Therapy*, (May), 1–13. doi:10.1080/14681994.2015.1028352

Moors, A. C., & Schechinger, H. (2014). Understanding sexuality: implications of Rubin for relationship research and clinical practice. *Sexual and Relationship Therapy*, *29*(4), 476–482. doi:10.1080/14681994.2014.941347

Zimmerman, K. J. (2012). Clients in Sexually Open Relationships: Considerations for Therapists. *Journal of Feminist Family Therapy*, *24*(3), 272–289. doi:10.1080/08952833.2012.648143


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August 12, 2016

"Polyamory is about balancing individual freedom with mutual care"

The UK's New Statesman, a 103-year-old progressive weekly aligned with the Labour Party, is out today with a new polyamory article, two years after its last one. A young contributing editor explains things to the unaware:

For many in my fearful, frustrated generation, “having it all” means opting out of monogamy

The Daily Mail would have you believe that polyamory is all wild orgies. Think more tea and washing up rotas.

By Laurie Penny

Polyamory, if you believe the news­papers, is the hot new lifestyle option for affectless hipsters with alarming haircuts, or a sex cult, or both. A wave of trend articles and documentaries has thrown new light on the practice, also known as “ethical non-monogamy” – a technical term for any arrangement in which you are allowed to date and snuggle and sleep with whomever you want, as long as everyone involved is happy. Responses to this idea range from parental concern to outright panic.

Having been polyamorous for almost a decade, I spend a good deal of time explaining what it all means. When I told my editor that I wanted to write about polyamory, she adjusted her monocle, puffed on her pipe and said, “In my day, young lady, we just called it shagging around.” So I consider it my duty to her and the rest of the unenlightened to explain what’s different about how the kids are doing it these days.

...There is nothing new about shagging around. I hear that it has been popular since at least 1963. What’s new is talking about it like grown-ups. It’s the conversations. It’s the texts with your girlfriend’s boyfriend about what to get her for her birthday. It’s sharing your Google Calendars to make sure nobody feels neglected.

Over the past ten years, I have been a “single poly” with no main partner; I have been in three-person relationships; I have had open relationships and have dated people in open marriages. The best parts of those experiences have overwhelmingly been clothed ones.

There’s something profoundly millennial about polyamory, something quintessentially bound up with my fearful, frustrated, overexamined generation, with our swollen sense of consequence, our need to balance instant gratification with the impulse to do good in a world gone mad. We want the sexual adventure and the free love that our parents, at least in theory, got to enjoy, but we also have a greater understanding of what could go wrong. We want fun and freedom, but we also want a good mark in the test. We want to do the right thing.

All of this makes polyamory sound a bit nerdy, a bit swotty – and it is.... Polyamory is a great many things, but it is not cool. Talking honestly about feelings will never be cool. Spending time discussing interpersonal boundaries and setting realistic expectations wasn’t cool in the 1970s, and it isn’t cool now. It is, however, necessary.

...If there is an economic type that is over-represented among the poly people I have encountered, it is members of the precariat: what Paul Mason memorably called the middle-class “graduate with no future”.

...Not all polyamorous relationships work out – and nor do all conventional relationships. We’re making it up as we go along. It would be helpful to be able to do that without also having to deal with prejudice and suspicion. Still, it’s easy to see where the suspicion comes from. The idea of desire without bounds or limits is threatening. It is a threat to a social order that exerts control by putting fences around our fantasies. It is a threat to a society that has developed around the idea of mandatory heterosexual partnership as a way to organise households. It is threatening because it is utopian in a culture whose imagination is dystopian. Freedom is often frightening, and ­polyamory is about balancing individual freedom with mutual care. In this atomised culture, that’s a revolutionary idea.

That boldfaced definition of polyamory is already running loose on social media this evening, courtesy (as far as I can tell) of Joreth Innkeeper.

Read the whole article (August 12, 2016). It first appeared in the print issue dated August 11, 2016.

As a print mag, the New Statesman is small (33,000 circulation in 2015) but influential for its size. Its online version claimed an average of 6.3 million pageviews a week during June 2016 (in the aftermath of the Brexit vote).



August 11, 2016

Report from the Woodhull Sexual Freedom Summit

A close ally of the poly movement is the Woodhull Freedom Foundation, named for the 19th-century free-love activist Victoria Woodhull. It's directed by Ricci Levy, who has spoken at many poly conferences. The Foundation's Family Matters project is especially poly-relevant; it's intended "to secure full rights, respect and recognition for all families by eliminating discrimination based on family structure."

Every August, Woodhull puts on a Sexual Freedom Summit in the Washington DC area for activists and researchers. This year's took place last weekend. I wanted to go and report on it, but couldn't. However, Billy Holder of Atlanta Poly Weekend fame was there, and he has just put up a report of his own. Here it is:

Woodhull Sexual Freedom Summit Recap (August 11, 2016).


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August 3, 2016

A plug for Endless Poly Summer

If you've wondered where to find deep poly community, I'm going to put in a plug for Endless Poly Summer coming up later this month at the Abrams Creek Retreat Center in West Virginia.

It's put on by the same folks — principally Sarah Taub, Michael Rios, and Debby Sugarman — who run the Network for a New Culture Summer Camp East at the same site, which you've seen me rave about here; I've been going to it every summer since 2010.

The dates are August 19 - 24, though you can come for just the weekend. Endless Poly Summer, and their other quarterly poly events at Abrams Creek, are basically Summer Camp with a poly focus. As I've said, the New Culture values of transparency, curiosity, personal growth and self-responsibility, and its practices for community creation and relationship-skills development, are exactly right for building poly relationships and community. Guests/presenters this time include Elisabeth Sheff (author of The Polyamorists Next Door) and Mark Michaels & Patricia Johnson (Designer Relationships).

From the website: "Here is where you can meet other poly people at a deeper level, learn the skills needed to handle your relationships, and become a part of a supportive network of people who share your relationship values.... Spend up to 5 days in a rustic woods-and-water setting, hang out around a bonfire, enjoy a song circle, cuddle up at a snuggle party, learn to take your relationships to the next level, and build connections with others that last all year long! At Endless Poly Summer, we invite top-notch presenters, and live, work, learn and play together for up to 5 days or more."

The location is in the cool mountains about 2 1/2 hours west of Washington DC. The website. Facebook event page. Tell them I sent you.




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July 31, 2016

"Why Polyamory Cured My Jealousy and What I Learned"

The Good Men Project

The huge poly literature on jealousy (for example) generally agrees that you should find the root of your jealous reaction, figure out what it's telling you, and use it. Ideally with the help of your partner(s). Don't imagine that you should, or can, just make it go away.

But there's no rule of psychology that some people don't successfully break. Here's the story, published Friday, of a very high-jealousy guy who joined a poly relationship and watched the green monster just turn into a puddle and disappear.

Why Polyamory Cured My Jealousy and What I Learned

These 4 factors could transform any relationship.

Getty Images

By Zachary Zane [not him in that generic photo]

I was that jealous boyfriend. Not the angry type. Not the one who would shove a stranger for casually glancing at his girlfriend. I’m way too passive for that type of alpha nonsense. No, I was more the cross my arms, look down, and quietly sulk jealous type.

...It was toxic. It was all-consuming. It was like a virus that swept through my body. My jealousy would strike with no warning, and nothing I did could ever calm the beast.

My girlfriend told me to relax; she said I have nothing to worry about. She told me over and over again that she loves me. She told me I need to trust her. But no matter what she said, I was still a jealous mess. And at least once a week, we had some talk, which ended with her reassuring me that my jealousy was irrational and unnecessary.

I felt like a child – constantly needing reassurance. I felt inadequate. I was annoyed with myself. I desperately wanted to be the secure boyfriend my girlfriend deserved.

We ended up breaking up. For this reason among a dozen others.

Three months later, I met my current boyfriend at a gay, underground, leather bar. My friend who I went with joyously proclaimed that he had met another bisexual man.

“You must meet!” he said, while dragging me over to the other side of the room.

It was slightly awkward because we had nothing in common to discuss, besides, “Oh you’re bi? Me too! Cool.”

After getting over the awkward greeting, he introduced me to his boyfriend, but told me he lives with his wife and girlfriend. My eyebrows rose.

“Oh really?” I said.

I had never met someone who was openly polyamorous. Sure, I had met plenty of people in open relationships. But to love three people at once, and to live with two of them?...

...I figured there was no way in hell this could turn into something serious.... But one date led to two. And two led to a dozen more. Before I knew it, we were seeing each other daily....

We’ve now been dating nearly eight months, and next month, I’ll be moving in with him and his wife.

Ironically, now that I date someone who dates (and is married to) other people, my jealousy has vanished. It wasn’t even something I had to purposefully work on. Polyamory naturally alleviated my jealousy issues. Here’s how.

#1 — There’s no fear of betrayal

When I grew jealous over my ex, my fear wasn’t, “Oh God, if she sleeps with someone else, how would I ever be able to sleep with her again?” It was, “What would I do if she lied to me?”... But when you’re polyamorous, that’s not something you have to worry about – because... no trust is broken.

#2 — I never fully trusted myself

I was never able to fully trust my ex because I never fully trusted myself. I was afraid I might get drunk and cheat on her. Or even worse, I’d develop an emotional connection with another person....

#3 — If he wants to spend time with me, it’s because he wants to spend time with me

...He could be boning, cuddling, or eating dinner with someone else – but he chose to do it with me....

#4 — We communicate openly about everything

In order for polyamory to work, you need to be honest about what you’re doing and who you’re seeing. Otherwise, your relationship(s) are doomed to fail. So we tell each other everything, and I trust him fully....

In the end, I realize it wasn’t polyamory that helped me get rid of my nasty jealousy issues. It was honesty and communication – things that you can have in a monogamous relationship.... We often tell white lies to our partner because we want to spare their feelings, or because we don’t want to make a “big deal” of something we deem inconsequential. But in hiding our feelings, we plant seeds of doubt, which eventually grow to be full trees of mistrust. ...

Read the whole article (July 29, 2016). Zachary Zane, of Boston and Provincetown, wrote about his MMF poly relationship last month for Cosmopolitan and about the couple-centeredness of OkCupid's unicorn-hunting feature for Pride.com in January. He regularly writes on bi issues for the Huffington Post and elsewhere.

A couple more jealousy items while we're at it:

Beyond Jealousy: A Spiritual Approach to Polyamory (Oct. 2, 2015), adapted by Dr. Anya from her book Opening Love (2015).

...I awoke from the dream, heart pounding. I had to reflect for only a few moments, because the meaning of the dream was obvious: There was, and is, still fear in my heart. I fear for human beings. I still sometimes doubt whether humanity is ready to be reborn to a new paradigm of love and relationship....

To begin to view our friends, family, and even our lovers and partners as free beings can be difficult.... The fear of abandonment is strong within most human beings. [But] the mental illusion that a person “belongs” to us is simply that: an illusion....

When enlightened teachers say they have gone beyond jealousy, what is it that they mean? Do they really mean that they never feel jealous? Does it mean they are somehow blocking or lacking very basic human emotions?... Is it possible? To answer these questions and to begin to understand the phenomenon of going beyond jealousy, one must first realize what jealousy truly is....

● Thoughts from KK about when jealousy is your internal problem, rather than your gut reacting to a real outside problem that your brain hasn't seen yet: Where Jealousy Comes From (Jan. 18, 2015):

There have probably been thousands of articles written on jealousy in polyamorous relationships. And I’m sure I’ve read every single one. But most leave me feeling like something is missing. So here’s my detailed analysis based on my own research, education and experience in the matter. ...

And to close,

Soliloquy and Baxter, at KimchiCuddles.com, are based on
real-life former partners of the artist. (Used by permission.)



July 28, 2016

Throuples vs. Threesomes; "What It’s Like To Be In A Three-Person Romance"

In the endless confusion of poly love vs. poly sex, HuffPost UK this morning offers some clarification for unaware newbies.

However, careless use of the word "equal" regarding three or more people always twinges me. Do you mean equal in respect, boundary-setting agency, and right to self-determination? Or equal in time allotted, expectations, and demands? Such as, God help us, demands for equal sex?

Throuple Relationships Vs Threesomes Explained: What It’s Like To Be In A Three-Person Romance

Spoiler: It’s not the same as a threesome.

Chris Garrett via Getty Images

By Rachel Moss, Lifestyle Writer at The Huffington Post UK

Romantic relationships are no longer restricted to two people. Around the world, an increasing amount of loved-up folk are choosing to live in a “throuple”.

“A throuple is an intimate, loving, equal relationship between a trio of people,” explains journalist and sex educator Alix Fox.

“It’s a play on the word ‘couple’, and indicates a close romantic bond shared by three human beings, rather than the more traditional two. [I prefer "triad" myself. –Ed.]

“Throuples may consist of three men, three women, or a mixture of genders.”

According to Fox, who presents The Guardian’s relationships podcast Close Encounters, a throuple is very different to a threesome, although in both cases, “three is the magic number”.

“To be clear, a threesome is a purely sexual encounter involving three individuals,” she elaborates.

“Two of them may be in a more committed long-term relationship with one another, or all three may just be — ahem — coming together to enjoy some casual fun, but in either case the emphasis in a threesome is primarily on erotic pleasure.

...In contrast, although a throuple may well have sex together, their relationship doesn’t only exist beneath the sheets.

“They’re practicing a form of ‘polyamory’ or ‘ethical non-monogamy’: that is, having a devoted, caring, involved relationship with more than one other person at the same time,” Fox says.

“For a throuple, it’s not just about shagging — it’s about sharing a special bond that extends beyond the bedroom.

According to Fox, throuples often begin as a pair who then meet and mutually fall for a third person. This was the case for Adam Grant and his boyfriend Shayne Curran....


“I recently attended a brilliant afternoon gathering called Poly Coffee, which takes place every month at Coffee, Cake & Kisses – a London-based café that holds a variety of clubs and workshops aiming to get people talking constructively about sex and relationships,” she continues.

“At Poly Coffee, people who’ve been in non-monogamous arrangements for years meet with folks who are just starting to explore the lifestyle, and have a natter over a brew and a brownie.

“It’s not only a fantastic way to meet new friends and potential partners, but also to get tips on how to manage multi-member relationships...."

...“Honesty, openness, clarity and approachability are essential in poly relationships, and poly folk frequently say that they learn much more about themselves via intimately interacting with multiple people who know them deeply,” she says.

...On the flipside, people in throuples can sometimes feel as though they’re competing for affection, or they can experience jealousy if they think that one partner is receiving more attention than them....

The whole article (July 28, 2016).